Działalność Instytutu Geologicznego w latach 1971-1975

Roman Osika


W latach 1971-1975 w ramach prac Instytutu Geologicznego zrealizowano 72 główne tematy i wykonano 528,3 tys. m wierceń. Ogólne koszty badań geologicznych, geofizycznych i wiertniczych wyniosły ponad 4,2 mld złotych. W okresie tym pogłębiono znajomość budowy geologicznej Polski oraz rozszerzono znacznie bazę zasobów surowcowych kraju.


A report on the works of the Geological Institute in the years 1900-1970 was published in the Kwartalnik Geologiczny no. 4, 1971. The present report covers the years 1971-11975. The period discussed was characterized by a' vigorous development of research works in all the fields of the Institute's interest. The research plan for the years 1971-1975 assumed elaboration of 72 main research problems and the total expenditure of 3 milliards zlotys. It was planned to make about 500 thousands meters of drillings, a large number of geophysical surveys and a series of research studies. The planed work were successfully carried out at the total expenditure reaching 4.2 milliards złotys and were found to be scientifically sound and economically useful.

No great changes took place at the Institute along the organizational lines in the years 1971-1975, compared with 1970. Among the changes introduced can be noted a greater use of team work and greater integration - especially on the level of synthesis - of the results of geophysical, geological-drilling, stratigraphic, petrographic, geochemical and metallogenic studies.

Like in the previous period, the highest expenditures were made on the studies on deep geological structure of Poland in connection with oil and gas prospecting. For this purpose, seismic profiles over 10.000 km long were made. Consolidated basement was traced with the use of the refraction method (profiles 4.300 km long) and the sub-Zechstein horizons and reservoir horizons in the Zechstein and Mesozoic from the Polish Lowlands as well as various structures from the Carpathian Flysch were traced using reflection method: Moreover, more than 105.000 gravimetric observations and 31.000 magnetic observations were made in order to reconstruct structural zones of the Zechstein-Mesozoic cover. In the years ;1971-1975, 185.500 meters of drillings of the depth 2.0-5.5 km were made for this purpose. The drillings made in the Polish Lowlands were aimed at the analysis of Zechstein deposits and their substratum from the point of view of the knowledge of oil and gas accumulation conditions and those made in the Carpathians – at the search of deep-seated structures in the central Carpathian Depression and the reservoir horizons in platform deposits occurring beneath overthrusted Carpathian Flysch (western Polish Carpathians). The results of the deep drillings are being published in the special series of publications of the Geological Institute entitled “Profiles of deep drillings of the Geological Institute".

The prospecting for solid raw materials in formations of known perspectives of resources and in formations of inferred perspectives of occurrence of resources (so-called basic studies) was carried out on much wider scale in the years 1971-1975 than previously.

The prospecting itself and the preliminary recognition of solid mineral deposits consumed the amount of 763.3 million zlotys. This sum included the expenditure for 247.800 m of drillings to the depth of 300-2000 m and a great number of geophysical surveys and mining works.

The investigations carried out in coal basins made it possible to estimate prognostic resources of black coals occurring at depths smaller than 1.000 m at 81 milliards tons. For some areas it was possible to estimate prognostic resources of brown coals (5.7 milliards tons).

A marked progress was made in prospecting and preliminary surveying of titanomagnetites in NE Poland, Triassic zinc-lead ores in the Silesian-Cracow region and Zechstein copper ores. The studies also covered chlorite-cassiterite schists from the Sudety Mts and some other ores. For these mineral raw materials perspective resources were estimated and further searching directions established.

The Zechstein rock and potassium salts from the Łeba elevation were studied. Seismic surveys and geological-drilling works have shown that prognostic resources of Polish potassium and rock salts are equal about 1 milliard and 125 milliards tons, respectively. The searching for sulphur deposits was also very successful as new deposits were found and documented in the vicinities of Połaniec and Basznia. The studies also covered Upper Eocene phosphatic nodules the prognostic resources of which are large but output per 1m2 is low. Some progress was also made in studies on barites in the Lower Silesia.

Large scale studies of different rock resources and especially carbonate rocks industry were made. A number of research studies were conducted in which and clay raw materials for various industries and natural aggregates for building prognostic resources of these raw materials were estimated.

Within the scope of the basic studies, probable perspective formations and structural zones such as Precambrian crystalline basement of the Mazury-Suwałki elevation (polymetals), Ordovician rocks of the Podlasie depression (U, V and Mo ores), Paleozoic rocks of the margins of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (polymetals), products of weathering of basic- igneous rocks from the base of the Carboniferous in the Lublin area and at Nowa Ruda in the Lower Silesia (bauxites and argillites) were examined. The studies also covered Devonian and Permo-Triassic rocks in the Holy Cross Mts (polymetals) and Bundsandstein rocks in the northern Poland and Fore-Sudetic monocline (uranium mineralization). In some places interesting mineralization was found, which calls for further research in this field.

The hydrogeological studies resulted in estimation of water resources for 29 areas in Poland. New occurrences of mineral waters were found and examined in the Polish Lowlands and Carpathians. Geological-engineering surveys were carried out for dams and water reservoirs on the Vistula river and its tributaries as well as in the areas of major towns and newly discovered deposits.

In the years 1971-11975 regular geological mapping was made in the scale 1:25000 for the Sudety Mts and 1:50 000 for detailed geological map of the country. Investigations within the fields of stratigraphy, petrography and geochemistry were conducted in all the geological regions. They made possible zonation of several rock complexes and elaboration of paleogeographic maps in the scales 1:500 000 and 1:200 000 for same selected formations.

The following maps were published: 43 sheets of maps in the scale 1:200 000 ,21 sheets of maps 1:50 000 and 19 sheets of maps 1:25 000, and same atlases such, as paleogeographic atlas of Paleozoic rocks in the scale 1:2 000 000 as well as geological maps and maps of mineral raw materials in the scale 1:500 000. The results, of research studies were published.

In the period under the report, 53 doctoral dissertations and 13 habilitation treatises were completed.

To sum up, in the years 1971-1975 the Geological Institute made further progress in the development of the national basis of mineral resources, initiated numerous research projects and indicated directions of further prospecting works. In the recognition of the great contribution of the Geological Institute to the development of the national economy, the State Council awarded the Second Class Order of the Banner of Labour to the Institute in July 1975.

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