Zarys badań dewonu w Polsce

Maria Pajchlowa, Lech Miłaczewski, Joanna Dadlez, Krzysztof Radlicz

Abstract


 Przedstawiono rozwój badań dewonu w Polsce od połowy XIX w. po czasy obecne ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem badań prowadzonych prze Instytut Geologiczny po 1945 r.

Pierwsze informacje o występowaniu osadów dewonu w Polsce pochodzą z połowy XIX w. i dotyczą odsłonięć występujących w Górach Świętokrzyskich i na obszarze śląsko-krakowskim. Badania stratygraficzno-paleontologiczne i petrograficzne J.B. Puscha, F. Roemera, L. Zejsznera, A. Michalskiego, S. Zaręcznego, J. Siemiradzkiego, G. Guricha, D. Sobolewa, J.F. Siomy, J. Czarnockiego i J. Samsonowicza, prowadzone w latach 1833–1919, umożliwiły podział na piętra i określiły obszary występowania skał dewonu w obu regionach. W Sudetach najwcześniej poznano odsłonięcie dewonu w Dzikowcu, które opisali E. Tietze w 1871 r. i G. Gurich w 1911 r.

 

 

AN OUTLINE OF STUDIES ON THE DEVONIAN OF POLAND

 

First informations on the occurrence of Devonian rocks in Poland, concerning their outcrops in Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts and the Silesian-Cracow region, were given in the middle of the XIX c. Stratigraphic-paleontological studies of selected sections from these regions were carried out till 1919.

In works of the State Geological Institute, established in 1919, most attention has been paid to geological mapping and stratigraphic studies in regional aspect. J. Czarnocki and J. Samsonowicz were studying the Devonian in Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts region and F. Rutkowski – in the vicinities of Cracow (Dębnik). These researchers elaborated regional stratigraphic sections and established their subdivision into stages. They also gathered large collections of fossils, the analysis of which was stopped by the world war II.

After the world war II, the studies on the Devonian were immediately recommenced in Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts, Silesian-Cracow region and Sudety Mts. Attempts were made to reconstruct geological and paleontological materials lost during the war. The recognition of the Devonian occurring beneath the cover of younger rocks by drillings also started at that time, giving first information on Devonian rocks of the Carpathian Foredeep.

At the end of the fifties, the Geological Institute and Oil Industry started intense geological surveys of the Polish Lowlands. Several drillings made in the western Pomerania and the Radom–Lublin area recorded the presence of various stratigraphic links of the Devonian. Intense drillings were also carried out in Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts, Silesian-Cracow region, Carpathian Foredeep and the Carpathians, and recently also in the forefield of the Sudety Mts, were also the Devonian has been found.

A rich core material gathered at the turn of the sixties and seventies made possible elaboration or preliminary recognition of regional lithological-stratigraphic sections. Intense lithological and paleontological studies were undertaken at that time by research teams of the Geological Institute, universities and the Polish Academy of Sciences. The results of these studies include litho- and biostratigraphic subdivisions of selected stratigraphic links of the Devonian, interregional correlations within the country and with sections from neighbouring areas, structural maps of the Radom–Lublin and Carpathian Foredeep areas, characteristics or lithofacies and an outline of paleogeographic evolution of individual links of the Devonian system in Poland.

The analysis of results of lithological-facies studies showed platform-type development of Devonian rocks in Poland, except for the Sudety and their forefield, wherefrom geosynclinal rocks of that age are known. The paleontological data obtained from studies of almost all groups of invertebrates occurring in the Polish Devonian made in possible to record the lowermost and uppermost biostratigraphic zones of that system as well as to characterize several zones within individual stages.

At the present stage of studies, there are still no data on the Devonian of central Poland.


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