Badania utworów prekambryjskich i paleozoicznych w Polsce i kierunki ich rozwoju

Borys Areń


 Przedstawiono historię badań geologicznych Instytutu Geologicznego w latach 1919–1945, opartych przede wszystkim na materiałach z odsłonięć i kopalń. Omówiono rozwój badań po drugiej wojnie światowej aż do 1979 r., postępujących szybko dzięki rozbudowie Instytutu Geologicznego i wprowadzeniu głębokich wierceń przekraczających nawet 5000 m.




Till 1945, the studies on geology of the Precambrian and Paleozoic could be based on material from outcrops in mountain areas and mines as only a few research drillings penetrated the cover of Cenozoic and Mesozoic rocks and entered the older ones. The possibilities of occurrence of valuable mineral raw materials in the Precambrian and Paleozoic focussed the attention on these formations and, since the fifties, deep drillings began to supply more and more material. The drillings made it possible to recognize rocks occurring even at depths over 5000 m The Geological Institute published several atlases and reports also covering the areas where older rocks occur at large depths. In the areas of the Precambrian Platform, crystalline basement was tentatively recognized and the Vendian analysed. A new detailed subdivision was introduced for the Cambrian. Major phases in the development of the Ordovician basin were recognized and new stratigraphic units, based on graptolites, were proposed for the Silurian. The Devonian appeared to be widely distributed and perspective from the point of view of search for oil and gas. Coal-bearing Carboniferous was found in the Lublin region (SE Poland). The knowledge of the Permian is rather limited to peripheral parts of the Polish Basin as in that Basin these as well as other Paleozoic and Precambrian series occur at depths beyond the reach of drillings at the present level of drilling technology in Poland.

The tasks which should be fullfilled by the geological survey in the near future are as follows: definition of the character and establishing stratigraphic correlations of the “consolidated basement”, elaboration of the contact zone of the Precambrian and Paleozoic Platforms, the study of Cambrian-Precambrian junction beds in Poland, analysis of thickness and lithological-facies development of the Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian, and definition of the Devonian-Carboniferous platform structural complex forming basement of the Permian. A special attention should be paid to the Rotliegendes and the remaining Paleozoic rocks series in areas where they are difficult to reach by drillings.


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