Badania geologiczno-poszukiwawcze Instytutu Geologicznego w latach 1919–1979 dla rozwoju bazy surowców mineralnych kraju

Roman Osika


Omówiono prace geologiczno-poszukiwawcze przeprowadzone w Polsce w latach 1919–1979, a zwłaszcza w 1953–1979, w wyniku których zbadano pełny profil utworów na obszarach platformowych i orogenicznych. W wielu okresach geologicznych stwierdzono nowe złoża kopalin i odkryto złoża surowców mineralnych o dużym znaczeniu gospodarczym wśród skał: prekambryjskich – rudy ilmenitowo-magnetytowe na obszarze suwalskim; karbońskich – węgle kamienne na Lubelszczyźnie, permskich – złoża rud miedzi i gazu ziemnego na monoklinie przedsudeckiej oraz złoża soli kamiennych i potasowych w okolicach Zatoki Puckiej; triasowych – nowy okręg złóż rud cynku i ołowiu w rej. Zawiercia; trzeciorzędowych – siarka rodzima na przedgórzu Karpat, węgiel brunatny w środkowej, zachodniej i południowo-zachodniej Polsce. Dla utworów prekambryjskich i fanerozoicznych wykonano wstępną ocenę formacji geologiczno-złożowych i zasobów perspektywicznych złóż kopalin, które będą szczegółowiej badane w dalszej działalności Instytutu Geologicznego.





The paper presents a synthesis of geological-prospecting studies carried out in the years 1919–1979, i.e. during 60 years of activity of the Geological Institute, and the knowledge of deposits and prognoses of search for mineral raw materials in individual geological formations of the Phanerozoic. The first part of the paper deals with mineralization related to magmatism and metamorphism. Such rocks form crystalline basement of NE Poland, being also known from Variscide, areas of the Sudety Mts and Fore-Sudetic Block (Table 1). In the crystalline basement of NE Poland, perspective series are gneiss- amphibolite ones, in which copper-nickel mineralization was found. A very large deposit of vanadium-titanium-magnetite ores has been found in Protetozoic norite-anorthosite massif in the Suwałki region.

Alkalic and alkalic-ultramafic Ełk and Tajno massif also appear to be interesting on account of the records of U, Tb, TR, Nb and Zr mineralization. There were also found jaspilite ores of the KMA and Krivoi Rog type, but their recognition is not continued because of a large depth of their occurrence (2400 m).

In the Sudety Variscide area, ultramafic rocks were covered by search for chromites, nickel sufide ores and deposits related to subsequent weathering of these rocks. A new magnesite deposit has been found at Wiry near Gogołow, and rare earth elements were found and a Sn deposit proven in the area of the Izera Massif. Skarns and apical parts of buried intrusions of the Sudety Mts and deep-seated zones of ultramafic rocks of the Fore-Sudetic Block were shown to be perspective.

In the Phanerozoic rock section, perspective series were found in the Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic and Tertiary, and inferred perspective series in the Vendian and Cambrian-Devonian (Table 2).

Attention should be paid to Early Paleozoic sedimentary-volcanic geosynclinal rocks of the Caledonian stage of the Cracow-Olkusz-Lubliniec zone, in which Cu, Mo, Zn-Pb, Mn and Fe were found, and sedimentary-volcanic rocks of the Kaczawskie Mts.

The studies on the Devonian have shown the presence of Cu-ore-bearing days in Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts and Zn- and Pb-mineralized dolomites at NE margin of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin.

The Carboniferous yields rock coals. A new coal basin has been found in the Lublin area. The studies carried out in central and south-eastern parts of the depression of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin showed the presence of coal seams of economic value.

Demonstrated, inferred, hypothetical and speculative resources were calculated with reference to depth intervals down to 2000 m for three coal basins. In the Carboniferous of the Pomerania and Lublin regions, also has was found.

Deposits of oil gas, copper ores and rock and potassium-magnesium salts are known from the Permian. Further search is here connected with exploration of the Permian in deep parts of the Permian Basin. The discovery of a great copper ore deposit in the Lower Zechstein of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline is one of the greatest achievements. The deposit is exploited by three mines and the fourth is under construction. Hypothetical resources of copper deposits were calculated and perspective areas were delineated for further search. Copper and zinc-lead mineralization was also found in the Lower Zechstein of Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts.

In the Zechstein, great rock salt deposits of the salt dome type were found in the Kujawy area, and layered rock salts and large deposit of polyhalite salts in the Łeba Elevation (Puck Embayment).

Table 3 presents perspective formations of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. The search in northern part of area of Triassic Ore-bearing Dolomites resulted in discovery of large Zn-Pb deposit at Zawiercie. Other areas of occurrence of the Ore-bearing Dolomites and Rhot ane also perspective.

Dogger iron ores were intensely studied in the Częstochowa area, Kujawy and Pomerania. Several new deposits were found but their thickness is net greater than that of the Częstochowa deposits. Lower Cretaceous iron ores and Albian phosphates were also studied.

In the studies on the Tertiary, much attention has been paid to brown-coal formations of central, western and south-western Poland. Several of the discovered deposits are or will soon be exploited.

Other great discovery is the finding of native sulfur in the Miocene in the Tarnobrzeg and Staszów region and the Lubaczów area in the east, in northern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. In the Foredeep, there were also found large gas deposits (Miocene). The search for oil and gas in deep-seated structures covered the areas of the Carpathian Flysch in the east. Moreover, there were studied Miocene and older platform deposits occurring beneath overthrusted Carpathian Flysch in the western Carpathians.

The studies of rock raw materials usable in various industries, especially in building industry, covered all the formations cropping out at the surface. Estimations of prognostic resources were made for all the rock materials. There were also carried out hydrogeological surveys, search for mineral and thermal waters and estimations of their resources.

Final part of the paper deals with the developments in geological-prospecting works. The significance of geophysical surveys, laboratory studies and drillings in search for deposits is emphasized. Table 4 gives summative length of deep exploratory and other drillings made by the Geological Institute in the years 1966–1978. Attention should be paid to the fact that 84 drillings ranging from 3000 to 5000 m in depth and 10 drillings over 5000 m deep were made in Poland after 1960. Figure 1 and Table 5 give location of these drillings.

Despite of everincreasing exploitation of deposits, systematic prospecting results in steady increase of their reserves. Table 6 shows increase in demonstrated resources in the years 1960–1977, as well as prognostic resources, index of prognosis (the ratio between prognostic and demonstrated resources) for January 1, 1976, and potential resources.

Several inferred metallogenic formations are differentiated and the necessity to carry out complex formational-metallogenic studies based on extended-range laboratory studies is emphasized.

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