Udział polskich uczonych w międzynarodowych kongresach geologicznych

Edward Rühle


 Udział polskich uczonych w międzynarodowych kongresach geologicznych datuje się od pierwszych sesji.  Do 1913 r. polscy geologowie z 3 zaborów najliczniej uczestniczyli w VII Sesji w Petersburgu w 1897 r. (20 osób) oraz w IX Sesji w Wiedniu w 1903 r. (19 osób). Na przedkongresowej wycieczce w Pieniny i Tatry w dyskusji między V. Uhligiem a J. Lugeonem zdecydowanie utrwaliła się teoria o płaszczowinowej budowie systemu alpejsko-karpackiego.

W okresie międzywojennym geologowie polscy brali udział we wszystkich sesjach. W XIV Sesji w Madrycie w 1926 r. naukę polską reprezentowało 19 osób, a jej przedstawiciel – J. Morozewicz został wybrany członkiem rady kongresu.

Po drugiej wojnie światowej od 1948 r. sesje odbywały się co 4 lata przy stałym udziale Polaków.

Okazją przedstawienia 25-1etniego dorobku geologii polskiej była XXIII Sesja w Pradze (1968 r.).

Geologowie polscy zgłosili 40 referatów, z tam przygotowali przewodniki dla wycieczek kongresowych po południowych regionach naszego kraju.

W 100-letniej działalności międzynarodowych kongresów geologicznych w jego pracach uczestniczyło 236 polskich uczonych.




Participation of Polish geologists in the International Geological Congress (IGC) sessions is discussed. Three major periods are differentiated. First of them (1878–1913) comprises sessions which have taken place in time when our researchers participated in these events as members of delegations of countries occupying Poland (Austro-Hungary, Germany and Russia), the second (1922–1938) – the sessions from the period between the world Wars I and II, and the third – the sessions since 1948 till the present.

Participation of' Polish geologists in the sessions may be traced back almost to the beginning of history of the International Geological Congresses and it was initially proportional to the existing possibilities in country under occupation. Two sessions appeared most important for the development of international contacts of Polish geologists. One of these was the VIIth IGC Session in Petersburg in 1897, at which 20 out of 944 participants were Polish and A: Michalski acted as the Treasurer of the Organizing Committee. The other was the IXth Session in Wien in 1903. Its programme involved two pre-congress excursions in the part of Poland called at that time as Galicia: one, in the Tatra Mts and Pieniny Klippen Belt, has been conducted by V. Uhlig, Wien geologist and the author of classic, monograph on geological structure of these regions, and the other one, in the Podolia and Prut River valley – by W. Szajnocha, the professor of the Jagiellonian University, Cracow. The discussion on the role of nappes in origin of the Tatra Mts, initiated by V. Uhlig, J. Lugeon and several other geologists including Polish ones, in the course of the former excursion, has continued at the sessions of the Congress to become significant event and gather remarkable impact on international geological circles. At the same time that excursion created an unique opportunity for large group of participants from several countries to meet the highest authorities of the Polska Akademia Umiejętności (Polish Academy of Knowledge), a body representing Polish scientific centers in Galicia and other occupied areas.

The revival of the Polish state after the w.w. I made possible an organized and official participation of Polish delegations in the IGC sessions. J. Morozewicz, the director of the State Geological Institute, has been the first representative of the Polish government to take part along with a group of Polish geologists in the IGC session (XIIIth IGC Session, Brussels, 1922). Although scientific significance of the IGC sessions was well appreciated in the country, participation of our representatives in these events used to be rather small. The exceptions include the above mentioned Brussels session and the next one, XIVth IGC Session in Madrid (1926). In the latter, 19 Polish geologists have taken part and the Convenor of the Polish delegation, J. Morozewicz, has been appointed to the Council of the Congress.

In the third stage (i.e. after the w.w. II), participation of Polish geologists in the sessions markedly increased. This was especially the case of the XXIIIrd IGC Session in Praha (1968), in which for the first time in history of the congresses the number of participants from our country was close to a hundred (93, i.e. 4.3% of all the participants). Polish geologists submitted 40 papers to almost all the sections and symposia and, together with the Czechoslovakian, were conducting several excursions in areas of the two countries. The session in Praha gave an opportunity to present achievements of Polish research centers, especially the Geological Institute, from the last 25 years.

The achievements in international cooperation are fairly large. Nevertheless, it should be noted that Polish geologists appear less active than those from neighbouring countries as far as chairmanship of IGC sections and symposia is concerned. From more positive facts it is worth to mention organization of the VIIth Meeting of the Carpatho-Balcan Association, an IGC affiliate, in our country.

About 270 geologists participated in that meeting and 260 papers were presented. Moreover, the Xth European Micropaleontological Colloquum has been organized in our country in 1969, within the frame of celebrating centenary of birth of J. Grzybowski, precursor of this method of studies. In that event there took part some dozens specialists from several European countries. Another important event was the colloquum on hydrochemistry of mineral waters, organized in 1979 by the National Committee of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), in which took part 92 specialists from 12 countries and 45 papers were delivered.

The contribution of Polish geologists is especially high in the Commission of the International Geological Map and in activities of its various subcommissions and working groups. In the last years, the intensification of activities of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) was accompanied by growing activity of Polish geologists in the Union, and we have two representatives in its chairmanship.


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