Charakterystyka stopnia zasolenia wód zlewni górnej Wisły

Bogumił Gajowiec, Jacek Różkowski

Abstract


 Przedstawiono wyniki badań składu chemicznego wód górnej Wisły między wodowskazami Goczałkowice i Dwory. Rozpatrywany odcinek Wisły odbiera wody odprowadzane z około 50% górnośląskich kopalń węgla kamiennego, które prowadzą eksploatację na różnych głębokościach i drenują poziomy wodonośne o zróżnicowanej mineralizacji i składzie chemicznym wód. Zanieczyszczenie wód Wisły wodami kopalnianymi uniemożliwia ich wykorzystanie do celów pitnych, a nawet przemysłowych.

 

SALINITY OF RIVER WATERS WITHIN THE UPPER VISTULA DRAINAGE BASIN

 

 

The paper describes hydrochemical investigations in the Upper Vistula River and some its tributaries the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) - Fig. 1. These rivers collect mine waters from about

50% of hard coal mines of the USCB.

The Upper Vistula drainage basin lies within two hydrogeological regions which are distinguished by different hydrogeochemical zonality. Coal mines drain the aquifers of variable mineralization and chemistry depending on their depth and position within the hydrogeochemical region.

The total volume of waters being pumped from coal mines directly or indirectly to the Vistula River is about 514.24 m3/min. These waters show a high degree of diversification of mineralization. About 210.0 m3/min of waters have TDS below 1.5 g/dm3, while 299.5 m3/min have content of TDS 1.5 to 70.0 g/dm3 and about 4.74 m3/min have TDS above 70.0 g/dm3.

The authors have done the field investigations of the Upper Vistula River in the section between Goczałkowice and Dwory water level gauges as well as in the lefthand tributaries i.e. in the Gostynia

River, the Goczałkowice Stream and the Przemsza River (Fig. 2), collecting the discharged mine waters.

The investigations deal with seasonal measurements of stream flows and chemical analysis of streams and river waters. The authors have stated that the hydrological regime of the Upper Vistula River and its tributaries (the Gostynia River, the Goczałkowice Stream, the Przemsza River) has been co-created by the discharged industry and municipal waters, mainly mine waters. That fact has contributed to the disturbance of the natural regime of the streams and rivers. The contribution of mine waters discharged into Upper Vistula River has been changed from 14 to 35% (according) to the total winter and spring flow at the Dwory water-level gauge.

The mine waters discharged to the Upper Vistula River have influenced the change of mineralization and chemistry of river waters. The mine waters and municipal sewage have caused distinct TDS increase in the Vistula River waters (Fig. 3). The Vistula River waters near Goczałkowice water-level gauge i.e. before collecting the mine outflows, are characterized by mineralization about 0.3 g/dm3 and by hydrochemical type of HCO3-SO4-Ca. The Vistula River waters at the Bieruń Nowy and Dwory water - level gauges, that is after inflow of mine waters, have mineralization correspondingly: 3.3-

3.5 g/dm3 and 2.4-3.1 g/dm3. They are waters of the CI-Na hydrochemical type.

The pollution of the Vistula River waters between Goczałkowice and the Dwory water – level gauges has eliminated the possibility of utilizing them as drink-waters and even as industry waters.

The investigations have shown that the mine waters discharge into the river has caused multiple - overnormative increase of the salt loads in the river. A slight dynamics of the salt loads changes in the river waters can be observed because of the high level of water pollution. It concerns mainly the Przemsza River and the Gostynia River where the seasonal differentiation of the salt loads doesn't overcome 5-8%.


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