Rozwój badań bezkręgowców czwartorzędowych w Polsce

Sylwester Skompski


Przedstawiono rozwój badań bezkręgowców czwartorzędowych w Polsce w ujęciu historycznym i z uwzględnieniem dorobku Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego. Oceniono poszczególne grupy (mięczaki, małżoraczki, otwornice i wioślarki), pod kątem przydatności w badaniach czwartorzędu, przede wszystkim w aspekcie stratygraficznym, paleoekologicznym i paleoklimatycznym. Z przeglądu materiałów paleontologicznych wynikają: sugestie co do kierunków dalszych badań bezkręgowców.


Development of research of the Quaternary invertebrates in Poland


Irregular development of research of the Quaternary invertebrates in Poland has caused that only some groups are widely reflected in references. These groups are - Mollusca, Ostracoda, Foraminifera and Cladocera.

Mollusca. Mollusca shells the most often in the Quaternary deposits were noted in the 19-th century. They were carefully reported, determined and described by geologist and paleontologists from the Prussian Geological Survey, particularly during intensively developed geological mapping in the second half of the 19-th century and in the beginning of the 20-th century (a serial geological map 1:25 000).

Numerous mollusc sites have been described in Southern Poland while carrying out 368 Sylwester Skompski a geological survey for The Geological Atlas of Galicia 1:75 000. Some few works appeared in 1924-1939, the significant development of research of the Quaternary Mollusca begun in 1945. Summing up the research has been done in State Geological Institute (S. Skompski, 1973, 1977; S. Skompski, A. Makowska, 1988). Lots of new sites have been recognized in last 15 years due to development of geological mapping in State Geological Institute, mainly to carrying out a serial Detailed geological map of Poland 1:50 000 and connected survey of the Quaternary deposits. Molluscs perform manifold functions in the research of the Quaternary deposits. Based on them there may be determined:

a - general genesis of deposits (marine, fluvial, limnic etc.);

b exact palaeoecology (dry, wet, forest, steppe environments);

c - palaeo geomorphological elements (river valley, slope, loess upland etc.);

d - palaeoclimate (species of warm and cold environments);

e - relative age of deposits - mainly the upper stratigraphic boundary of deposits with fauna;

f - absolute age with the 14C method.

Ostracoda. There are only few works on the Quaternary Ostracoda in Poland. They are determined mainly by the way of the research of Mollusca. Ostracoda are useful in research of Quaternary for stratigraphic, palaeoecological and palaeoclimatic purposes. In Poland 80 species have been already recognized.

Foraminifera. They occur on the small area of Northern Poland, in the Eemian Interglacial, Krastudy Interglacial (A. Makowska, 1986), North Polish Glaciation and Holocene deposits. There are first raports on occurrence of Foraminifera in the older deposits (the Mazovian Interglacial - A. Makowska, 1986; the Cromerian Interglacial(?) - W. Słowański, 1975). Foraminifera were used to reconstruct the palaeoclimatic and palaeoecological conditions and sea water salinity.

Cladocera. They are poorely recognized. Various remains have been described in several sites of the Holocene, Eemian Interglacial, and Mazovian Interglacial deposits. Results can be used to determine the palaeoecological and palaeoclimatic conditions, as well as to determine trophicity of fossil water basin, its chemism and flora. Other groups of Invertebrata, relicts of which were found in the Poland's Quaternary deposits (Radiolaria, Polychaeta, Bryozoa, Echinodermata, Insecta etc.) have not been yet a sufficient material to generalization. Investigations of Invertebrata should be intesified in the deposits older than the Eemian Interglacial. The investigations should consist of stratigraphy, palaeogeography and methods and be correlated with results of palinological, petrographic and other investigations. As resulted from hitherto existing practice, cooperation with specialists of other branches (especially zoology) is profitable.

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