Petrographic and microprobe study of nephrites from Lower Silesia (SW Poland)

Grzegorz Gil


Lower Silesia hosts important European nephrite deposits of Jordanów and less-known of Złoty Stok. Nephrite artifacts were discovered in archaeological sites dated back to the Neolithic period, across Eurasia. Especially artifacts found in Poland, Italy and Bulgaria may originate from Polish nephrites. Nowadays, only one artifact is precisely linked to Jordanów. Petrographic study of nephrites and chemical analyses of constituents by means of EMPA allow accurate identification of the nephrites. The characteristic phases of Jordanów tremolite nephrite are rotated and cataclased diopside porphyroblasts with pressure shadows, chlorite layers and nests with interlocking non-pseudomorphic texture and prehnite veins. The presence of hydrogrossular, grossular, titanite, apatite with monazite inclusions, and zircon with pleochroic haloe is typical. Chlorites are usually represented by penninite, and minor clinochlore and diabantite. The characteristic features of Złoty Stok actinolite nephrite are löllingite and diopside crystals usually visible by the naked eye, with the presence of quartz and carbonates. Löllingite is chemically inhomogeneous and gold bearing. Most of the mineralogical-petrological features can be obtained using non-destructive methods



nephrite, Jordanów, Złoty Stok, electron microprobe, raw material identification

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