Bicarbonate and calcium-magnesium hydrochemical indicators for the assessment of human impact on the groundwater chemistry – a case study from the Holy Cross Mts. region (Poland)

Jan Piotr Prażak


Hydrochemical indicators are widely used for assessment of groundwater chemistry. They were established mainly for mineral water in order to understand their origin and chemical classification. In the case of fresh water, they are used occasionally because quality classifications are based on concentrations of individual components and physical properties in relation to the permissible standards established for water intended for human consumption. Natural in Polish climate, bicarbonate-calcium and bicarbonate-calcium-magnesium waters are commonly used for drinking. In many places, ions emitted from pollution outbreaks have already caused chemical changes of water and it is often the first symptom of their contamination. The author has evaluated the scope and trends of these changes in the groundwater of the Holy Cross region in Poland using the bicarbonate and calcium-magnesium indicators.


freshwater; hydrochemical indicators; anthropopression; Holy Cross Mts.

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