Late Devonian facies variety in Iran: volcanism as a possible trigger of the environmental perturbation near the Frasnian-Famennian boundary

Mohammad Hosein Mahmudy Ghara, Ryo Matsumoto, Yoshitaka Kakuwa, Paul G. Milroy


Upper Devonian successions surrounding the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) boundary in Iran consist of mixed carbonate/silisiclastic deposits. The successions are characterized by conspicuous ferruginous limestones, clay-rich units, black shales, and mafic volcanic rocks that provide important insights into palaeoenvironmental conditions during this interval of Earth's history. An increase of kaolinite/illite ratio in clays associated with the F-F boundary suggests that increased chemical weathering was facilitated by warm and humid climatic conditions. Distinctive ferruginous-oolite deposits overlying the crucial Frasnian-Famennian boundary interval indicate a high supply rate of Fe-bearing clay originated during enhanced weathering under such climatic conditions. Black shales associated with the F-F boundary are interpreted to be the result of a high primary productivity caused by an increased influx of land-derived nutrients and regional volcanic activity. Widespread rift-related, basaltic activity along eastern Laurussia and northern Gondwana during the mid-Late Devonian is believed to have contribution to this global warming surrounding the F-F boundary.


Frasnian-Famennian boundary; Iran; black shale; ironstone; greenhouse; volcanism

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.