The Apectodinium spp. acme as an evidence for the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum from the Polish Outer Carpathians

Danuta Cybulska, Jacek Rubinkiewicz


Numerous Apectodinium taxa, with A. augustum, and the presence of Florentinia reichartii were found in the Bystre slice (Polish Outer Carpathians). Such abundance of Apectodinium is described for the first time in the Outer Carpathians. The occurrence of thermophilic Apectodinium taxa, with co-occurrence of Florentinia reichartii, are interpreted to be strongly related to the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). The PETM is characterized by a notable global warming and changes in marine and terrestrial biota, such as a global dispersion of thermophilic dinoflagellates. We are also reporting a new, unrecorded section of the Hieroglyphic beds from the Jabłonka Stream.


Apectodinium; PETM; dinoflagellate cysts; Polish Outer Carpathians; Hieroglyphic beds

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