Determination of swell index and swelling pressure from suction tests – a case study of Neogene clays from Warsaw (Poland)

Emilia Wójcik, Ireneusz Gawriuczenkow

Abstract


The paper presents the results of swell index, swelling pressure and soil suction tests carried out on Neogene clays from Warsaw, depending on the water content, clay fraction, liquid limit, plasticity index, cation exchange capacity, and content of clay minerals and beidellite. These clays are considered expansive soils in Poland, as they are vulnerable to water content variations in the active zone, which result in their volume change and, in consequence, cause damage of foundations and other construction elements. A number of physical, chemical and mineral properties were determined for these clays. The swelling tests were carried out on samples precompacted in Proctor apparatus, at various initial values of water content. The analyses have shown exponential relation of swell index, swelling pressure and suction versus water content. In addition, the investigated relationship between the suction and swell characteristics of tested clays shows good correlation as a power function between these parameters. In addition, validity of correlations between fitting parameters of obtained relationships and soil index properties, such as clay fraction, liquid limit, plasticity index, cation exchange capacity, and content of clay minerals and beidellite, have been demonstrated. The empirical relations are characterized by high values of the correlation coefficient. A very high fit has also been found for a proposed relationship between the swell index and swelling pressure for tested clays

Keywords


expansive soils, swell index, swelling pressure, soil suction, Neogene clays

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