Source rock geochemistry, petrography of reservoir horizons and origin of natural gas in the Devonian of the Lublin and Lviv basins (SE Poland and western Ukraine)

Natalia Radkovets, Maciej Kotarba, Krystian Wójcik

Abstract


The Rock-Eval source rock characteristics, mineral composition and type-porosity of reservoir horizons, and origin of natural gas in the Devonian of the Lublin and Lviv basins are described. In the Lower Devonian, the TOC content ranges from 0.01 to 1.82 wt.% in the Lublin Basin, and from 0.01 to 0.45 wt.% in the Lviv Basin. Transformation of organic matter varies from immature in the Lochkovian (Lviv Basin) to mature and overmature in the Emsian (Lublin Basin). The organic matter contains mainly Type-II kerogen, and underwent primary and/or secondary oxidation processes. In the Middle Devonian, the TOC content varies from 0.00 to 1.63 wt.% in the Lublin Basin, and from 0.02 to 0.64 to 2.35 wt.% in the Lviv Basin. The organic matter contains mainly Type-II kerogen and is immature in the Givetian of the Lviv Basin and mature in the Eifelian of the Lviv Basin and in the Eifelian and Givetian in the Lublin Basin. In the Upper Devonian, the TOC content is from 0.02  to 2.62 wt.% in the Lublin Basin, and from 0.04 to 1.43 wt.% in the Lviv Basin. Type-II kerogen dominates in both basins. Organic matter is mature in the Upper Devonian in the Lublin Basin and in the Famennian of the Lviv Basin and overmature in the Frasnian of the Lviv Basin. The reservoir horizons in the Devonian of the Lublin and Lviv basins are developed in clastic, carbonate and sulphate rocks. Terrigenous rocks form several separate horizons in the Lower and Middle Devonian of the Lviv Basin, and in the Upper Devonian (Famennian) of the Lublin Basin. Their filtration properties relate to intergranular porosity, while the fracture space has subordinate significance. Carbonate rocks form thick saturated horizons in the Givetian in the Lviv Basin, and in the Eifelian, Givetian and Frasnian in the Lublin Basin. Their filtration properties are produced by fracture porosity. Sulphates and carbonate-sulphate rocks with fracture and cavern porosity play a role as reservoir horizons in the Middle Devonian of the Lublin Basin. The natural gas collected from the Upper Devonian of the Lublin Basin was generated mainly during low-temperature thermogenic processes, from Ordovician–Silurian Type-II kerogen. The gas from the Middle Devonian reservoirs of the Lviv Basin was produced from Ordovician–Silurian Type-II kerogen and partly from the Middle and Upper Devonian mixed Type-III/II kerogen with maturity from about 0.9 to 1.4%. Carbon dioxide was formed by both thermogenic and microbial processes. Molecular nitrogen was generated mainly through thermal transformation of organic matter and also from destruction of NH4-rich illite of the clayey facies of the Ordovician–Silurian strata


Keywords


Devonian; Lublin Basin; Lviv Basin; Rock-Eval pyrolysis; petrography; isotope geochemistry

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