The position and age of flysch deposits in the Crimean Mountains (Southern Ukraine)

Nestor Oszczypko, Andrzej Ślączka, Ihor Bubniak, Barbara Olszewska, Małgorzata Garecka

Abstract


The Crimean Mountains (CM) are regarded as part of the Alpine-Himalaya orogenic belt related to the collision of the Eurasian and African plates. Our research in the CM has allowed confirming the existence of at least two flysch formations of different ages: the Taurida Flysch Formation (Upper Triassic/Lower–? Middle Jurassic) and the Sudak Formation (uppermost Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous) in the western and eastern sectors of the CM, respectively. After the Middle Jurassic volcanism, the freshwater claystones with coal-bearing intercalations, as well as local alluvial fan conglomerates were deposited. Then, following the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian marine transgression, three separated Tithonian/Berriasian carbonate platforms developed: Baydarska, Chatyr-Dag and Demerji/Karabi. At the turn of the Late Jurassic, the deep-water Sudak Basin (eastern sector of the CM) began to develop in the eastern periphery of the Demerji/Karabi carbonate platform. This basin, dominated by turbiditic deposition, was probably connected with the Great Caucasus sedimentary system. Finally, distal flysch sedimentation in the Sudak Basin was followed by debris-flow deposits, with huge blocks of Upper Jurassic limestones. These blocks were derived from destruction of the Karabi carbonate platform. During the Berriasian/Valanginian, the eastern sector of the CM began to subside. As a result, both carbonate platforms (western CM) and the debris flow fans of the Sudak Basin (eastern CM) were overlain by marly shales and/or distal turbidites. This type of deposition lasted until the Aptian/Albian. In the post-Albian period, the Alushta-Salgir tectonic zone was transformed into a SE-dipping thrust fault with at least 10 km amplitude of overthrusting.

Keywords


Ukraine; Crimean Mts.; stratigraphy; micropalaeontology; flysch

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