Heavy minerals from sedimentary rocks of the Malcov Formation and their palaeogeographic implications for evolution of the Magura Basin (Western Carpathians, Slovakia) during the Late Eocene–Late Oligocene

Katarína Bónová, Ján Bóna, Martin Kováčik, Dušan Laurinc

Abstract


Detrital heavy minerals separated from the Malcov Fm. deposits (Magura Nappe) indicate their source rocks and areas. The heavy mineral assemblages predominantly consist of garnet, zircon, tourmaline, rutile and Cr-spinel. EPMA analyses reveal a few groups of garnets: zoned and unzoned Grs almandines, Prp-Sps almandines, unzoned Prp almandines, almandines, Sps almandines and rare zoned spessartine grains (~85 mol% Sps). The garnet composition indicates that gneisses, mica schists, amphibolites and granites were their main source rocks, but low-grade metapelites with Mn mineralisation probably contributed as well. The detrital dravitic tourmalines were mostly derived from paragneisses and mica schists. Cr-spinel indicates a volcanic source. Based on heavy mineral assemblages, coupled with palaeoflow analysis, we conclude that the Marmarosh Massif and Fore-Marmarosh Suture are the most probable source areas. Aditionally, the Malcov sedimentary basin was supplied by material from the crystalline complexes of the Tisza Mega-Unit and Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). The bulk of the clastic deposits comprise classical turbidites. These lithofacies were deposited from either turbidity currents or from concentrated density flows. The palaeoflow record is varied and highlights the contribution of sedimentary material from several directions and/or diversion of gravity currents from the main flow direction (SE–NW). The marginal parts of the Malcov sub-basins were formed of deformed and uplifted older formations of surrounding units of the Magura Nappe and PKB (submerged ridges). Older (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) flysch sediments may have been redeposited from these ridges to neighbouring sub-basins in a transverse direction (NE–SW).


Keywords


Western Carpathians; Magura Nappe; Malcov Formation; provenance; heavy minerals; mineral composition

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