The middle/late Eocene transition in the Eastern Carpathians (Romania) based on foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil assemblages

Raluca Bindiu, Sorin Filipescu, Ramona Balc, Lavinia Cocis, Delia Gligor


Foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil assemblages from the Eastern Carpathians (northern part of the Tarcău Nappe, Romania) were documented and correlated in order to reconstruct the palaeonvironmental settings and provide a biostratigraphic framework of the Plopu Formation. The benthic foraminiferal assemblages are dominated by flysch-type agglutinated taxa, suggesting a bathyal palaeodepth with frequent oscillations of the carbon compensation depth. The agglutinated foraminifera morphogroup analyses suggest different levels of organic matter influx and oxygenation. Both the foraminifera and calcareous nannofossil assemblages suggest a shift between the warm mid Eocene to the cooler late Eocene climate. Biostratigraphic data based on calcareous nannofossils (NP15–NP19/NNTe8–NNTe12 biozones) helped to establish the age of the formation. Four assemblages of benthic agglutinated foraminifera (Psammosiphonella cylindricaNothia excelsa; Paratrochamminoides spp. – Trochamminoides spp.; Karrerulina spp.– Reticulophragmium amplectens; Spiroplectammina spectabilis) correlated with calcareous nannofossil bioevents supported the placement of the mid to late Eocene transition within the Plopu Formation.


microfossils; biostratigraphy; paleoecology; turbidites; Tarcău Nappe

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