Berthierine in the Middle Jurassic sideritic rocks from southern Poland

Aleksandra Kozłowska, Anna Maliszewska

Abstract


 A characteristic green and yellow-brown clay mineral from sideritic rocks was studied from 14 boreholes penetrating the Middle Jurassic strata of the northeastern margin of the Holy Cross Mountains and Częstochowa region, using polarizing and scanning electron microscopes, cathodoluminescence and X-ray analysis and revealing the presence of berthierine. In these sideritic rocks, berthierine occurs mainly in Lower and Middle Bathonian strata deposited in shoreface and deltaic environments of the northeastern margin of the Holy Cross Mountains, and in Upper Bajocian deposits of both areas studied. It forms the clay cement of sideritic rocks, fills voids in bioclasts and is also present in ooids. Ooids consisting of berthierine have been affected by mechanical compaction and mainly carbonate replacement. Berthierine ooids, replaced by sideroplesite, pistomesite, Fe-calcite or ankerite, and rarely by pyrite and altered by kaolinite, occur commonly. Berthierine ooids of the Bathonian sideritic rocks are typically better preserved, compared to those from the Bajocian and Aalenian. Berthierine crystallised in the eodiagenesis stage in suboxic conditions below the water-sediment interface, where iron-bearing freshwater mixed with sea water. It is chemically and structurally unstable and, during the mesodiagenetic stage at higher temperatures, could transform to chamosite by recrystallisation.

 


Keywords


berthierine; sideritic rocks; Middle Jurassic; Holy Cross Mountains; Częstochowa region

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