Charakterystyka czwartorzędowych łupków bitumicznych z Białynina koło Rawy Mazowieckiej

Jerzy Badak, Julian Grudzień



In the .Quaternary deposits at Białynin, near Rawa Mazowiecka, the presence of bituminous shales has been established. As a rule, these latter occur at a shallow depth, beneath the clay and sand cover, several meters in thickness. The shales are up to 9 m thick. For the most part, they are developed as argillaceous black shales with leaf-like cleavage, locally with marly interbeddings. Their sand contents change and are greatest in the middle part. Underneath, silts and gravels occur. The profile of the deposit appearing at Białynin is shown in Fig. 1.

In order to define the quality of the shales, determinations of shale oil contents from 1 meter thick sections of the full profile were made by means of the Fischer-Schrader method (Table 1). It results of these determinations that at the bottom and at the top, there occur the greatest quantities of pyrobitumens, up to 21-24%. In the middle part, these are lower ranging from 12% to 17%. The mean  yield of the shale oil is 16,83%.

To determine the chemical properties of the shale oil, degasification of a large quantity of bituminous shales was made in the hot blast stove. After retorting, the balance of which is presented in Fig. 2, the following products were obtained: shale oil, retorting gas and semicoke, as well as both retorting and drying waters.

The retorting gas was obtained as much as 1 kg of bituminous shale its caloric value is 1741 kcal per cu.m. Course of gas outflow is illustrated in Fig. 3.

The yield of the shale oil was 8,87%, representing 52,7% of the theoretical yield. The composition of the shale oil and the properties of the products derived are shown in Table 2. The main products are: benzine, up to 200°, paraffine, engine oil and diesel oil.

The bituminous shales from Białynin are raw material worthy of practical utilization. The shale oils derived from these shales are base of various petroleum products, especially such as diesel oil, engine oil and paraffine.

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