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Tadeusz Osmólski

Abstract


IN THE MIOCENE OF THE CARPATHIAN FORE-DEEP AND LITHOLOGY OF THEIR SUBSTRATUM

On the basis of fieldworks carried out in the Działoszyce trough, the author draws a conclusion that the formation. of deposit-like concentrations of native-sulphur of the "Tarnobrzeg type", as well as of deposits of Western Ukraine, is connected with the occurrence of very thick reservoir rocks at their bottom and, sometimes, also at the top. This part is played here by the arenaceous Baranów beds and, as to the deposits of Western Ukraine, also by the superimposed Kosów beds and the glauconitic Maestrichtian sands resting at the bottom of the Baranów beds.

Development of the Baranów beds in a clayey-marly fades typical for the-area stretching between Busko and Cracow, causes a formation of deposit-like concentrations of sulphur of another so-called "Czarkowa type". In this connection, the author attempts to establish the lithologic-facial criteria allowing to define areas, in which determined conditions might have produced deposit-like concentrations of native sulphur in the Miocene of the Carpathian Fore-deep. Such, for instance, are the areas embraced by the Baranów transgression, which supplied detrital material (Quartz), i.e. the Palaeozoic massif of the Święty Krzyż Mountains in the Tarnobrzeg region, and the area of Western Ukraine, where the Upper Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) sands and sandstones are present. However, beginning with the Solec trough, as far as the Cracow area, the Baranów transgression entered upon marls of the Maestrichtian, sometimes of the Campanian, too. Exactly these marls supplied clayey-carbonate material there. Developed in this manner the Baranów beds do not disclose properties of a bituminous basin. On the contrary, they form a kind of insulator protecting the overlying gypsums against the influence of the hydrocarbons occurring in the substratum of the Miocene. However, even under such conditions, the accumulations of deposit-like concentrations of sulphur may occur. These are, however, of different shape, and to not reach a size of the deposits occurring in Western Ukraine, or at Tarnobrzeg. Here, the contact between bitumens and gypsums was possible only along, the faults and fissures in the substratum of gypsum series. Since the bottom, of gypsums lacks a wide-range reservoir rock, the zone of hydrocarbon activity is limited only to the fault zone. Thus, here developed the narrow and extensive zones of sulphur occurrences, such as described from, the fork of the Wistula and the Nida rivers. Genetically, they are corrected with faults and have been formed along both flanks of here existing structure. On the basis of these observations, the author attempts to explain the origin of the deposit-like concentrations of native sulphur in the Silesia area.


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