Rozwój surowcowej bazy rud w ZSRR

I. S. Różkow, M. B. Borodajewska




Achievements of the Soviet Union in the development of the national economy at the time of the Soviet power are considerable. Important effects of that period were also due to the Soviet geologists whose works contributed to the development of numerous branches  of mining industry of the country. At present, all kinds of mineral raw materials are found in the territory of the Soviet Union, including various iron, non-iron, precious and rare metals and chemical elements that completely assure the further development of industry. As concerns resources of numerous mineral raw materials, the USSR has undoubtedly a world lead.
Genetical types of deposits so far unknown in the territory of the Soviet Union, and metallogenic provinces have been distinguished. This was possible due to the intense development of geological, metallogenic and structural researches and investigations conducted by means of numerous modern research methods.
The investigated iron ore resources of the Soviet Union are, approximately, equal to those of the capitalistic countries. Important achievements have been noted as concerns search for manganese. As concerns resources and output of this metal, the Soviet Union takes the leading position in the world. Large resources of high-quality chromite ores have been discovered, and considerable mineral raw material base for titanium has been established.
Within the old copper-bearing regions of the country, new highly rich copper deposits were found to occur in the form of copper-pyrite ores. Moreover, there were also discovered large deposits of copper-bearing sandstones and copper-porphyraceous ores, so far unknown in the territory of the USSR, as wen as interesting copper manifestations in new metallogenic provinces were ascertained.
In addition, considerable resources of lead and zinc were established as well.
Aluminum industry entirely developed during the period of the Soviet power; at present, it disposes of considerable resources comprising mineral deposits of various types. Creation of mineral raw material base in production of tin, which was not exploited in the areas of the czar's Russia, was also an important achievement of the Soviet geologists. Discovery of large deposits of nickel ores, among which are such objects unique from industrial point of view as f. ex. Talnakh, can also be referred to the valuable achievements of the Soviet geology.
Considerable reserves were established as concerns gold-bearing deposits, too. At the time of the Soviet power a series of new highly perspective metallogenic gold-bearing provinces were discovered; their mineral reserves have so far not been established in great detail, however.
Notable achievements have been obtained also in the domain of such mineral raw materials as molybdenum, quicksilver, antimony, silver and others.
Tile results of the researches made by the Soviet geologists were positively appreciated during the XXIII Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. In his occasional speech, A. N. Kosygin, President of the Council of Ministers, said: “Thanks to the selfless labour of our outstanding geologists, the resources of natural wealth considerably increased. At present, we dispose of these resources in quantities allowing us to develope the national economy of the country”.

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