Tundrowa gleba kopalna w profilu lessowy we wsi Hulcze (Grzęda Sokalska)

Henryk Maruszczak, Maria Piotrowska




At Hulcze, a village situated 35 km south of Hrubieszów, some horizons of fossil soils have been found to occur in loess series. From the stratigraphical and typological points of view, two at them correspond to the soil of Paudorf type (brown oil) and of Brürup type (degraded chernozem soil) of the profile at Nieledew, which is the most characteristic of Polish loesses (J. E. Mojski, 1965, 1967). The loess found between the two soils mentioned above, thus that corresponding to the Peniglacial A, is intercalated with a particular, weathered horizon that reveals soil features (Fig. 1 and Tables 1 and 2 – beds IIh and IIi). Thus, from the stratigraphical point of view, this horizon represents a unit, which is characterized by the order lower than that of the Paudorf Interstadial. Genetically, it also distinctly differs from the interstadial loess soils known to occur in the areas of Middle and, East Europe.
On the basis of the detailed results of examinations (Tables 1 and 2), this characteristic horizon has been determined as tundra soddy soil. The following is the sequence of genetical horizons, reconstructed for this soil: A0–A1–(B)–(B)C–C.
The first of these horizons underwent mineralization. Its occurrence is proved by a strong concentration of manganese and molybdenum in the horizon A1.
The second horizon (bed IIh) is fairly well preserved, but it lacks humus that, most probably, underwent oxidation in the presence of Mn-compounds. The well preserved horizon (B) is distinguished by a considerable enrichment in Fe2O3. The small total thickness of this soil proves that the soil has developed during a short period of slackening the accumulation rate of the loesses in the Peniglacial A.
The peculiarity of genetical features of the tundra soil, distinguished in this way, is fairly well illustrated by the results of analysis of trace elements. It may be ascertained here that no of the remaining interglacial fossil soils in the Hulcze profile discloses any features typical of tundra biogenesis. This remark may concern not only the degraded chernozem of Brörup type (beds IIk2 and IIm. Table 1) but also the brown soil of Paudorf type (beds Id and Ie). The latter one reveals an assemblage of trace elements similar to that of the recent soil (bed Ia) of grey forest type.


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