Mikroflora z utworów poziomu Goniatites granosus w synklinie gałęzickiej (Góry Świętokrzyskie)

Aleksander Jachowicz, Halina Żakowa




The Carboniferous of the Gałęzice syncline, situated in the south-western part of the Palaeozoic massif of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (Fig. 1) has recently been intensely investigated by H. Żakowa (1961, a, b, papers in print). New materials from bore holes Gałęzice 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 have demonstrated that the Upper Visean limestones or the analogous calcareous-clayey formations with Goniatites ex gr. crenistria and Nomismoceras cf. vittiger is overlain with a clastic series of the horizon Goniatites granosus. The age of this series has not so far been determined more in detail (J. Czarnocki, 1965, S. Kwiatkowski, l959). The maximum thickness of the clastic series, found to occur bore holes, amounts to about 154.0 m, at the exposures slightly exceeding 160 m. This series is distinguished by certain lithological differentiation in a vertical direction, and by simultaneous differences in organic material occurrence (Fig. 2). Microflora has been found to appear in the deposits with guide fauna of the horizon Goγ and in the overlying beds with flora remains, as well as sporadically in the calcareous-clayey series referred to the horizons Goγ and Gab.
Microfloristic examinations allowed the authors apart from certain difficulties arising from the bad preservation state of exines, to determine assemblages of microspores and pollen grains. In addition to common species and form, lacking any stratigraphical significance, the assemblages first of all consist of the species that appear in the Upper Visean and the Lowermost Namurian (see list of species in the Polish text).
The more precise statigraphical position of the samples examined has been determined on the basis of frequency of more important genera, and on several species of microspores (Tables 1 and 2). The younger microflora, related to the horizon Goniatites granosus, found to occur in the region of bore holes Gałęzice 2, 3, 4 and probably 5, is characterized by the occurrence of the following forms: Anapiculatisporites serratus P l a y f o r d, A. minor B u t t e r w r t h et W i l l i a m s Tripartites rugosus (H o r s t) D y b o v a et J a c h o w i c z, Bellispores nitidus (H o r s t) Su 11 i v a n, Rotaspora knoxi B u t t e r w r t h et W i l l i a m s, Savitrisporites nux (B u t t e r w r t h et W i l l i a m s) Su 11 i v a n, and others. The older microflora, found to occur in the region of bore holes Gałęzice 3 and 5, is lesser-characteristic. It is distinguished mainly by a lack of the younger species and by the occurrence of single microspores known from the horizon Goa within the region of Lechówek (A. Jachowicz, 1961,1962, H. Żakowa, 1962), where index goniatite fauna appears. A more detailed characteristics of this microflora calls for more precise taxonomic examinations of the miorospores, so far encounotered in the lower part of the Upper Visean in the Śwętokrzyskie Mountains. Nevertheless, the resemblance of the older microflora from Gałęzice and of the microflora from the region of Lechówek proves that within the Łagów syncline, the Upper Visean, deposits really represent the lower part of this stage (Table 3).
The examinations have also demonstrated that in the sporomorph assemblages of the Upper Visean, differences may be observed between the horizon Goγ and other Lower horizons, whereas they are not visible between the goniatite sub-horizons. Thus, microfloristic examinations may be useful in precise determination of the deposits that contain common fauna or are lacking fauna completely, in this case also to determine the Visean – Namurian boundary. This problem requires, however, further regional investigations.

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