Badania przepływu wód metodą pomiarów ciśnień potencjalnych

Andrzej Różkowski

Abstract


RESEARCH OF GROUNDWATER FLOW USING A METHOD OF POTENTIAL HEAD MEASUREMENTS

Summary

In the present paper the author explains groundwater flow conditions in the Jurassic deposits in the vicinity of Cracow, based on the total head field measurements.

The measurements have been made mainly in bore holes, partly also in water wells and springs. The study enabled the present author to construct a model of the area. The model includes three water-bearing layers of various permeability. The well-permeable upper layer, consists of Malm limestones overlain with Pleistocene till of small thickness. The middle layer is represented by Dogger sandstones, and the lower one - by Palaeozoic limestones, dolomites and sandstones. A great variety in permeability has been observed to appear in the Palaeozoic deposits. The aquifers mentioned above are separated from each other with impermeable marly Neuvizyan deposits and with Liassic clays.  The field measurements resulted in. the establishment of some groundwater flow systems of the basin in study, presented then on the map and on two cross sections. The distribution, of equipotential lines on the sections shows that within the area considered several separate flow systems occur, related to the three main aquifers.
Best recognized are the groundwater flow conditions of the upper aquifer, where mainly lateral flow occurs. Vertical upward flow is observed to appear within the river and stream valleys only. These lattar are drainage areas of the upper aquifer.
Due to the well-defined topography and deep valleys, both regional and local flow systems originate in the groundwater basin examined. Local sub-basins are drained by stream valleys. On the, other hand, river valleys are the area of regional discharge.

 


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