Działalność Instytutu Geologicznego w latach 1966-1970

Roman Osika

Abstract


THE ACTIVITIES OF THE GEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE IN THE YEARS 1966-1970

Summary

The report reviews the scope of the geological work and the major achievements at the Geological Institute during the period of 1966-l970, as compared with the plan established in 1965.The report has been divided into 10 chapters. The programme for the period 1966-1970 anticipated major progress in defining the deep geological structure of the oil and gas prospect areas in the Polish Lowlands and in the Carpathians. For this purpose a number of seismic refraction profiles and 248 500 metres of deep drilling were planned. This programme was carried out succesfully with a minor delay - owing to technical reasons – in drilling in the Carpathian area. A definite increase in the solid mineral resources was anticipated and this plan was overfulfilled by several tens of per cent. Also the hydrogeological and engineering geological plan was carried out. The total funds originally allocated for the Institute's work in the years 1966-1970 were about 3.54 milliard złotys, but owing to the expansion of some work the real cost was 3.73 milliard złotys. In the years 1966-1970 the organizational structure of the Geological Institute was slightly changed aiming at improving the coordination of geological work. Some units were combined, other new ones were created, one of them being the Department of the Geology of Deep Structures directed towards creating the basis for exploration for oil and gas. In connection with the enlarged scope of the work during the years 1966-1970 the staff of the Institute increased by the planned12 per cent and it currently reaches the number of 1150 persons. To define the deep geological structure of Poland during the period from 1966 till 1970 248 500 metres were drilled and extensive geophysical surveys were carried out as a result of which the prospect areas for oil and gas were more precisely defined. In the Carpathians two regional prospective zones have been distinguished: the northern one with platform-type deposits (Mesozoic and Miocene molasse deposits) occurring under the overthrust flysch, and the southern zone with prospective deep structures in the Carpathian Flysch. In the Polish Lowlands the most prospective zones are the Cambrian and Ordovician of the Peribaltic syneclize and the Podlasie-Lublin elevation. Also the Lower Devonian sandstones as well as the Middle and Upper Devonian carbonate rocks at the Lublin area are regarded as prospective. Over that area as well as in western Pomerania also the Lower (limestones and sandstones) and the Upper (sandstones) Carboniferous show prospects of oil and gas occurrence. Within the Permian the ones most promising for oil and gas oceurrence are the sandstones of the top part of the Lower Permian as well as the Z1, Z2, and Z3 horizons of the Upper Permian within the Fore-Sudetic monocline. Within the Triassic the sandstone horizons of the topmost part of the Bunter of the Wielkopolska-Kujawy depression show the best prospects for oil and gas occurrence. Within the Jurassic the hydrocarbons are expected to occur in the top part of the Lower and Upper Jurassic of the Wielkopolska basin as well as the Oxfordian bioclastic and oolithic limestones on either side of the Kujawy swell. It should be emphasized that considerable oil shows have been encountered in the Middle Cambrian of the Peribaltic syneclize and that oil shows and gas accumulations of economic value are known from the Devonian and Carboniferous of the Lublin area. In the years 1966-1970 considerable progress was attained in exploration for solid mineral materials by increasing the reserves and by preparing new prospective zones to explore for these materials. For this purpose 358 500 meters were drilled and necessary geophysical surveys were completed. On the Precambrian platform one of the major achievements were the preliminary examinations of the new coal basin (Lublin region). Several coal seams of economic value have been recognized within the Upper Carboniferous (Westphalian). Their estimated tonnage is about 20 milliard tons. Currently considerable knowledge exists on the richest coal-bearing area suggested for the location of future mines. On the Łeba elevation in the Puck bay area considerable polyhalite accumulations in the Zechstein have been discovered and examined. The preliminary examinations of the ilmenite-magnetite deposits in the Suwałki region counts among our most important achievements. Close analogies exist between the above ores and the ones from Otankmaki deposit in northern Finland. On the Precambrian platform new prospect zones have been defined to explore for deposits so far unknown. On the Palaeozoic platform new zones have been successfully recognized for exploring for Zechstein copper-bearing shales and potassium salts in the Fore-Sudetic monocline and for uranium ores within the Bunter. In the northern rim of the Upper Silesia Coal Basin within the Palaeozoic (Silurian, Devonian) prospective areas for metal ores overlain by a Mesozoic cover have been defined. A new big zinc-lead deposit has been discovered in the Zawiercie region within the Middle Triassic. Great progress was achieved in exploration for native sulphur. New prospect areas in the Tarnobrzeg region have been discovered and examined. As, a result of extensive geological penetration new sulphur-beating areas have been recognized in the Carpathian Fore-deep. Large-scale exploration for other mineral materials were carried out. In the hydrogeological field the most important problem was to evaluate the ground water resources in the individual regions of the country. Following the plan thirteen regional hydrogeological reports have been compiled and currently records exist covering 75 per cent of the country's area. For the project of Development of the Vistula River System the Geological Institute completed the evaluation of ground water reserves. Great progress was achieved in hydrogeology of the deposits and hydrogeological mapping. The engineering geological work was closely related to the future needs of various branches of the building industry mainly the hydrotechnical, municipal, and industrial constructions. Thirteen final reports for dams on the Vistula river have been compiled as well as reports on the Dunajec, Wisłoka and Soła river valleys. A comprehensive geological engineering and hydrogeological report has been made for the future brown coal mines in the Bełchatów region as well as numerous appraisals of the engineering geological conditions of the mineral deposits. In the years 1966-1970 all the landslides in Poland have been recorded. Considerable advance was also attained in research and laboratory work including stratigraphic, petrographic, geochemical, sedimentological and palaeogeographic examinations along with the respective laboratory methods. As to its character the research work may be divided into two groups: The first group embraces studies "related" to examinations of deep geological structures, to the exploration for solid mineral deposits, to hydrogeological and engineering geological work. The other group may be called "spearhead" studies aiming at examining the least known rock complexes and stratigraphic sequences as well as at establishing new methods and techniques. During the five years’ period discussed several tens of sheets of the detailed geological map of the Sudetes Mountains were compiled find more than ten sheets of the detailed geological map were assembled for the Polish Lowlands. Geological mapping and works on assembling the geological map of Poland on 1: 200 000 scale has been fairly advanced. During the period from 1966 till 1970 the achievements of the Geological Institute were published in the form of both text and cartographic editions. Besides the serial text publications such as "Prace" (''Papers''), "Biuletyn" ("Bulletin"), and "Kwartalnik Geologiczny" ("Geological Quarterly"), special bulletins were issued containing synthetizing monographs as for example ''The Geology and Raw Materials of Poland". Also the publication of a summarizing edition entitled ''The Geological Structure of Poland" was initiated. The publication of geological maps, particularly of mineral raw material maps, also counts among the significant achievements of the Geological Institute. The following items are worth special attention: several tens of sheets of the detailed geological map at the Sudetes Mountains and of the Polish Lowlands, the Geological Atlas of Poland and the Mineralogenic Atlas of Poland both on 1: 2 000 000 scale, Solid Geological Map of Poland (without Quaternary and Tertiary), Mineralogenic Map of Poland on 1 : 1 000 000 scale, the Geological Map of the Sudetes Mountains on 1 : 200 000 scale and the Map of Building Raw Materials on 1 : 300 000 scale. In 1967 meeting the need for economic approach and for applying mathematical methods to the geological work the Section of Economics of the Geological Work was called into being at the Geological Institute. The activities of this Secion resulted in a considerable advance in evaluation methods of the mineral deposits and in establishing the economic assessments. Also attempts were made to process the geological data applying mathematical methods. During the period from 1966 till 1970 the geological collection and particularly the palaeontological collection expanded considerably. A number of publications on geological material and maps were issued. The Archive at Geological Records was transformed into the Central Archive of Geological Records of the "Geofond" type. In the years 1966-1970 38 of the Geological Institute's employees obtained their doctor's degree and 8 obtained the higher degree of "habilitated doctors". In June 1971 the hundredth Ph. D. thesis was presented at the Geological Institute. Our specialists were able to improve their qualifications through contacts with foreign centres. During the period of 1966-1970 more than 500 of the Institute's staff went abroad, this number including geologists acting on various international scientific organizations such as Working Group of the Geological Map of the World. The Carpathian-Balkanian Association the Standing Geological Commission at the Council for Mutual Economic Aid and others. Finally it should be emphasized that in the years 1966-1970 Polish geologists attained serious progress both in applied geology and in research. In this field Poland undoubtedly counts among Europe's most advanced countries.

 


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