Wyniki badań areologicznych prowadzonych za pomoca Marinerów

Krystyna Nawara

Abstract


THE RESULTS OF AREOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS MADE BY MARINERS

Summary

Until l962 Mars was investigated by terrestrial astronomical observatories. The astronomers discovered many dark and bright spots, which they called "lands" and "seas". They discovered also the sequence of the seasons during the Martian year and white polar caps around the poles of Mars. Many of scientists investigated the red colour of Martian surface. American spacecraft Mariner 4 has started an epoch of space areological investigations of Mars by satellites. Mariners have investigated areophysical phenomenons of Mars and also have sent many pictures of Martian surface. These pictures reveal the lifeless world of Mars which looks exactly like the lunar world. Many craters, chasms, cracks and other forms resembling lunar forms are seen on the surface of Mars. The Martian atmosphere has low pressure and consists mainly of carbon dioxide, extremely low content of water vapour, methane and ammonia. The oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen are absent in Martian atmosphere. The white polar caps consist probably of carbon dioxide. American spacecraft Mariner 9 took many picture of both moonlets of Mars - Phobos and Deimos. These moonlets are probably planetoids.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7306/gq.v17i2.12961