Krystalochemiczne własności minerałów ilastych z karbonu produktywnego Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego

Józef Ryszka

Abstract


CRYSTALLOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY MINERALS OF THE PRODUCTIVE CARBONIFEROUS IN THE UPPER SILESIAN COAL BASIN

Summary

Complex research has been made in order to recognize the structural and chemical properties of clay minerals found in the productive Carboniferous of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin area. It has been ascertained that the clay minerals occurring in claystones of the marine, freshwater and soil horizons reveal an identical association of mixed structures kaolinite-illite-chlorite. Clay minerals from the claystones, which make intercalations in coal seams (Tonstein), produce either a mixed structure kaolinite-montmorillonite, or a monomineral phase of kaolinite. At a temperature of about 550°C a phase change from kaolinite towards the structure of chlorite takes place in the associations of mixed structures mentioned above. Clay minerals that occur at the bentonite horizon are characterized by a structural-chemical variability, depending upon sampling site. Thus, there are fund here monocrystalline montmorillonite phases and mixed structures montmorillonite-illite, or even montmorillonite-illite-kaolinite. The specific structural-chemical character of the Carboniferous montmorillonite examined has been determined. Clay minerals of the oolite claystones, found to occur below coal seam 510, distinguish themselves by an association built of monophase crystallites of kaolinite and illite approximate to muscovite 3-H. It has been ascertained on the basis of the distinguished structural-chemical teatures of clay minerals and on the results of petrographical examinations of the clay rock varieties mentioned above that the verietes of the oolite bentonite claystones and of tonsteins are related to the sedimentation of tuffite recrystallizing, however, under facial conditions. The formation of the oolite claystones is most probably related to a short-lasting change in climate.


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