Staroholoceńska fauna lądowa mięczaków z Kunowa (na W od Ostrowca Świętokrzyskiego)

Władysław Karaszewski




At a deep ravine cut into the Opatów Sandomierz loess upland an old Holocene terrace occurs, the height of which at the place here considered amounts to about 8 m, gradually decreasing down approximately to 6 m. In the upper part of the terrace are found loess silts bearing at a depth of about 1 m the shells of Succinea oblonga D r a p. and Pupilla muscorum L. The shells rest on a bed of arenaceous silts, several metres in thickness, with intercalations of sands, reddish in colour caused by the Triassic deposits eroded in the upper part of the ravine.
These deposits contain abundant shells of molluscs determined by J. Urbański, University of Poznań, as follows: Acme polita H a r t m., Carychium minimum M u l l., Cochlicolpa lubrica M u 1 l., Orcula doliolum B r u g., Acanthinula aculeate M u 11., Vallonia costata M u 1 l., Clausilia ventricosa D r a p., Laciniaria plicata D r a p. (due to a lack of wrinkles at the external margin of the aperture this specimen belongs to the form L. implicata B i e 1 z.), Punctum pygmaeum D r a p., Goniodiscus rotundatus, M u l l., Vitrea cristallina M u l l., Vitrea contracta W e s t., Retinella nitens M i c h., Retinella pura A l d., and numerous shell of molluscs of the family Helicidae (no doubt, some of them belong to larger species, maybe Cepaea hortensis M u 11., or Fruticicola fruticum M u l l. – the family Fruticicolidae), and Pisidium casertanum P o 1 i.
His expertise J. Urbański annotated as follows "Among the species mentioned above only one, i.e. Pisidium casertanum, represents the aqueous species, the rest belong to the continental species. This fact is particularly important, for the Pleistocene and Old Holocene continental fauna (except for loess fauna representatives) are rarely encountered in Poland ... Almost all the discovered species are at present very common in Central Europe. An exception makes here Orcula doliolum, found to occur mainly in the mountainous areas of the southern part of Central Europe, and the southern areas of the continent. In Poland this species appears in the Silesian region (very rarely), in the Cracow-Częstochowa) Jura Belt, at Czerwona Góra near Kielce, in the Pieniny Klippen Belt and at some sites of the Carpathians, also at Kazimierz on Vistula ... ; it requires more warmth than the other species found in the same sample. In Poland it occurs almost everywhere, mainly on the warm calcareous substratum."
This article is only a preliminary information on this interesting phenomenon


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