Zastosowanie i metody badawcze termobarogeochemii

Jadwiga Pawłowska

Abstract


THERMOBAROGEOCHEMISTRY: APPLICATIONS AND METHODS

Summary

The present paper briefly reviews the major problems and theoretical basis of inclusion studies and their contribution to the knowledge of the origin of minerals and rocks. Thermobarogeochemistry is developing in many countries, but chiefly in the USA, USSR, Japan, and France. Table 1 (after N. P. Ermakov and R. P. Melnikov, 1971) illustrates the problems that can be solved by thermobarogeochemical methods and the position of thermobarogeochemistry among the geological sciences.
Three states of aggregation and their behaviour dependent on temperature, pressure, and chemical composition of the solution have been discussed against the physical state of the mineralization environment. This type of information may be obtained from inclusion studies. Due to the variety and common occurrence of inclusions in minerals more and more numerous groups are being included in the classification (Fig. 1, Tab. 2). Common cases of inclusion formation, their types and features indicative of the primary mineral are discussed.
Along with the description of inclusion studies methods the fundamentals of determination of temperature, pressure, and chemical composition of the solutions are given. The basic problems, procedures, and equipment used to determine homogenization temperatures are discussed. As an example, the constructional scheme of a heating camera is given along with the principal constructional elements (Fig. 2). Other research centres are encouraged to construct and use such a camera in their routine practice. Due consideration is given to inclusion decrepitation, reviewing the advantages of the acoustic decrepitometers, thermobarometer recording the gas pressure, increase, and the TGA. The constructional scheme of the automatic decrepitometer constructed at the Geological Institute in Warsaw (Fig. 5) is presented.
Less common analytical methods are only briefly mentioned, special emphasis being put on extraction procedures of liquid and gaseous inclusions from ground samples. The classifcation at solution types and formulas for their determination (Fig. 7) are given. Only the principal literature providing information on analytical methods for gaseous inclusions is listed.
Finally, cryometry, the developing branch of inclusion studies, is briefly discussed along with the simplest equipment now in use.


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