Eemian–Weichselian Pleniglacial fluvial deposits in S Poland (an example of the Vistula River valley in Kraków)

Tadeusz Sokołowski, Agnieszka Wacnik, Barbara Woronko, Jacek Madeja



A fragment of the middle terrace in the VistulaRivervalley, nearby the railway station in Kraków, is formed by fluvial channel and overbank deposits of the PrądnikRiver, which bear a record of various environments affected by changing climatic conditions. The sedimentary succession includes two complexes that differ in lithofacies. The older complex comprises fining-upward deposits (channel sand and gravelly sand with medium- and large-scale trough cross-stratification) and, less frequently, sand with planar cross-stratification overlain by silt with intercalations of biogenic deposits of abandoned channels. Vegetation accompanying the deposition of biogenic layers was typical of boreal coniferous forests, dominated by Pinus sylvestris with a small admixture of Larix, Pinus cembra, Picea, Betula, and Populus. Periodically, the landscape passed into open areas overgrown by woody tundra. The complex developed as a result of activity of a meandering river under conditions of a moderately cool climate. The younger complex includes the sand lithofacies with horizontal stratification and low-angle cross-stratification, overlain by alternating sands and silts. The topmost part is represented by sands with large- and medium scale planar cross stratification. Lack of biogenic deposits and considerable amount of frosted quartz grains in alluvial sediments indicate aeolian processes of greater intensity, periglacial conditions and evolution towards a braided or transitional river. Pollen successions, absolute dating and studies of structural and textural features of the sediment suggest that the time of its deposition may be estimated at a range between the close of the Eemian Interglacial and the Weichselian Middle Pleniglacial (OIS 5e–OIS 3).



Eemian-Weichselian, river deposits, climate change, environmental change,

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.