Młodoplejstoceńskie i postglacjalne stanowiska flor kopalnych w Koninie

Zofia Borówko-Dłużakowa


Na podstawie wyników analizy palinologicznej próbek z profilu Jóźwina wiek nowoodkrytej serii organicznej oceniono na typowy interglacjał eemski. Pozwoliło to na przeprowadzenie porównań i charakterystyki fitofaz optimum klimatycznego opracowanych paleobotanicznie organicznych osadów czwartorzędowych z profilu Marantowa - datowanych na brÝrup - oraz z profilu Gosławic – datowanych na późny glacjał i holocen. Osady interglacjału eemskiego na tym obszarze stanowią ważne ogniwo stratygraficzne. Odkrycie ich potwierdza słuszność datowania osadów z Marantowa na brÝrup.


Quaternary deposits forming a blanket of brown coal deposits in the Konin mine have been studied for several years. The earth works exposed three series of organic deposits (gyttja and peats) of different age (Fig. 1). Late Pleistocene deposits from Jóźwin and Marantów separate tills of the Middle-Polish and Baltic Glaciations (Fig. 2), and the youngest organic series, known from Gosławice, belongs to post-Glacial deposits.

Samples for paleobotanic analyses were taken in the form of full, relatively thick (6.5 to 10.0 m thick) monoliths. The detailed micro- and macrofloristic studies covered the profiles of deposits of the BrÝrup age from Marantów (Z. Borówko-Dłużakowa, 1967) and those of the Late-Glacial and Holocene age from Gosławice (Z. Borówko-Dłużakowa, 1969, 1970).

The age of deposits from Marantów has been the subject·of controversy. According to some viewpoints, the deposits could be assigned to the Eeemian or even Masovian Interglacial. The preliminary palynological analysis of samples from the Jóźwin profile was recently made by the author. The pollen spectra obtained are representative of phytophases of a climatic optimum and unequivocally indicate Eemian age of these deposits. This dating gives further support for the BrÝrup age of the deposits from Marantów.

The diagramme of phytophases of climatic optimum (Fig. 3) illustra.tes differences in development of vegetation from the Jóźwin, Marantów and Gosławice profiles.

The pollen diagramme of the Eemian Interglacial from Jóźwin represents phyltophases of deciduous forests. The lowermost part of the diagramme reflects predomination of mixed forests with large share (33%) of oak (Quercus) and hazel (Corylus). The share of the latter was up to 75% at the most. Higher parts of the section are characterized by predominance of hornbeam (Carpinus), alder (Alnus) and hazel (Corylus), with small admixture of conifers.

The Marantów profile is characterized by predominance of conifer forests with pine (Pinus) and spruce (Picea). Deciduous trees are represented by alder (Alnus), the share of which begins to predominate. The share of small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata M i l l.) is initially large. Oak (Quercus) and elm (Ulnus) occur in trace amounts, and the of hornbeam (Carpinus) and hazel (Corylu) is below 10%.

The Holocene climatic optimum from Gosławice is characterized by forest assemblage with domination of pine (Pinus) and birch (Betula). The share of all the components of deciduous forest is below 20%. Hazel (Corylus) is here more frequent than in the Marantów profile but :its share is still below 15%. Spruce (Picea) is occasional.

Attention should be paid to the fact that all the studied organic series from Konin display full successions of luxuriant development of vegetation of the three periods mentioned above. The deposits of the Jóźwin profile are older than those from Marantów and the Gosławice profile presents the record of changes in flora in the Late Glacial and Holocene times.

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