Zarys chronostratygrafii czwartorzędu regionu świętokrzyskiego

Leszek Lindner

Abstract


Stosunkowo liczne oznaczenia wieku bezwzględnego osadów czwartorzędowych regionu świętokrzyskiego uzyskane metodami: FCI/P, termoluminescencji, paleomagnetyzmu i 14C, a także nowo odkryte stanowiska paleontologiczne na Kozim Grzbiecie i w Karsach, sprawiają, że region ten można uznać za wzorcowy pod względem liczby wyróżnionych i datowanych glacjałów („zlodowacenie otwockie”, Narwi, Nidy, Sanu, Odry, Warty, Wisły) oraz interglacjałów („interglacjał celestynowski”, podlaski, małopolski, mazowiecki, lubelski, eemski), których nomenklaturę podano w nawiązaniu do prac M.D. Baranieckiej (1975), S.Z. Różyckiego (1979, praca w druku) i L. Lindnera (1979).

 

AN OUTLINE OF CHRONOSTRATlGRAPHY OF THE QUATERNARY IN THE GÓRY ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKIE MTS REGION

 

The Early Quaternary (Protopleistocene as interpreted by S.Z. Różycki, in press) comprises time span from 1,790,000 to 920,000 y. B.P. In the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts region (Fig. 1), the lower part of the Protopleistocene is represented by weathering loams, sometimes with bone remains (Kadzielnia), typical of steppe environment (K. Kowalski, 1958; J. Chaline, 1977) from times of the “Otwock Glaciation”, corresponding to the Donau Glaciation (M.D. Baraniecka, 1975; L. Stuchlik, 1975). Upper part of the Protopleistocene is represented by so-called Połaniec Gravels, characterized by the lack of Scandinavian material (W. Laskowska-Wysoczańska, 1975). The gravels evidence the action of rivers in time of the “Celestynów Interglacial”, corresponding to the Donau/Gunz, i.e. Waal Interglacial (M.D. Baraniecka, 1975; L. Stuchlik, 1975).

The Late Quaternary (Pleistocene and Holocene) comprises the time span from 920,000 y. B.P. to the present. Within the Pleistocene, there are identified deposits corresponding to 6 glaciations and 5 interglacials (S.Z. Różycki, 1979, in press; L. Lindner, 1979).

During the Narew (Gunz) Glaciation, the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts region was situated in the extra-glacial zone. The periglacial conditions predominating at these times, were favourable for development of slope processes (J. Czarnocki, 1931; J. Łyczewska, 1971; L. Lindner, 1977a, 1979, in press).

During the Podlasie (Gunz/Mindel I) Interglacial, at first erosion was predominating and later – fluvial accumulation, resulting in origin of fossil alluvial series sometimes with organogenic intercalations

(A. Makowska, 1976: Z. Borówko-Dłużakowa, 1977).

During the Nida (Mindel I) Glaciation, Scandinavian icesheet has rearched for the first time the northern slopes of the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts., leaving there the lowermost, locally bipartite till horizon. The tills rest on the oldest loess horizon. Paleomagnetic and FCI/P datings of deposits from the Kozi Grzbiet locality (see J. Głazek et al., 1976a, 1977) show that the maximum of this glaciation has taken place 700,000 to 640,000 y. B.P.

In Poland, the Małopolska (Mindel I/Mindel II) Interglacial has been evidenced for the first time by the results of studies of faunal remains from the Kozi Grzbiet locality, representing Late Cromerian faunal assemblage (J. Głazek et al., 1976a, 1977). Similar conclusions were drawn on the basis of datings made by the FCl/P method, indicating so called Cromerian n of Dutch researchers (550,000–700,000 y. B.P.).

During the maximum stage of the San (Mindel II) Glaciation, the Scandinavian icesheet covered the whole studied area. It left bipartite (two-phase) till and a separate till horizon, corresponding to the post-maximum stage, in northern part of the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts region. The tills are accompanied by three loess horizons. The San Glaciation comprises time span from 550,000 to about 440,000 y. B.P.

The Masovian (Mindel II/Riss I) Interglacial is here represented by weathering-denudational and karst levels, products of erosional-accumulational activity of rivers, as well as organogenic series, e.g. at Olszewice, Barkowice Mokre and Witaszyn. Datings of material from the Draby 3 locality near Działoszyn and sub-till alluvial series from the Wąchock locality, made by FCl/P and thermoluminescence methods, respectively, show that the Interglacial comprises time span from about 440,000 to about 352,000 y. B.P.

During the Odra (Riss I) Glaciation, the Scandinavian icesheet comprised the northern and north- western parts of this region only. It left there from one to four till horizons, displaying imbricate arrangement. The horizons correspond to individual phases of the Radomka stage. Dating of material from the Wąchock section (Fig. 2), made by the thermoluminescence method, show that till of the Odra Glaciation, occurring in that section, is delineated at the base by deposits 352,000 y. old.

The Lublin (Riss I/Riss 1I) Interglacial is represented by organogenic deposits from Karsy

(D. Kosmowska-Suffczyńska, K. Szczepanek. in press) and fossil soils of the “Tomaszow” type (J. Jersak. 1973). In the Wąchock section, interglacial reservoir accumulation is represented by supra-till silts dated at 245,000 ±45,000 y. B.P.

During the Warta (Riss II) Glaciation, almost the whole region of the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts was situated in the periglacial zone, beyond the extent of the Scandinavian icesheet (Fig. 2). The periglacial conditions are evidenced by formation of slope deposits and loesses. The equivalents of these deposits in the Wąchock section include sandy-silty cover deposits, dated by thermoluminescence method at 142.550 ± 3,650 y. B.P.

In the Eemian (Riss II/Wurm) Interglacial. similarly as in the earlier, erosional-denudational and weathering-soil processes were predominating and organogenic accumulation was taking place in both karst and glacigenic depressions in the studied area. In the section Błonie 3, north of the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts region, the optimum of the Eemian Interglacial is dated at 108.000-125,000 y. B.P. (W. Karaszewski. 1975).

In times of the Vistulian (Wurm) Glaciation, the region was similarly situated beyond the reach of the Scandinavian icesheet. Periglacial conditions, predominating here, were favourable for the development of slope processes, valley accumulation and formation of dunes and loess covers, resulting in origin of 5 major loess horizons (Fig. 3). The upper three of the loess horizons are dated at 42,000±1,500 y. B.P. (Lm3). 24,087 ±2.587 y. B.P. (lm4) and 15,380±1,830 y. B.P. (Lm5).

The Holocene period, comprising the last 10.000 years, was characterized by valley and organogenic accumulation and development of karst, slope and dune-forming processes in this region.

In the light of the above data, the region of the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts may be recognized as a reference area for Poland on account of completeness of the recognized major chronostratigraphic

units of the Quaternary.

 


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7306/gq.v24i3.8820