Źródła jako podstawa charakterystyki hydrogeologicznej wschodniej części Pasma Klonowskiego

Andrzej Mochoń

Abstract


 Przedstawiono wyniki badań źródeł wschodniej części Pasma Klonowskiego w północnej części Gór

Świętokrzyskich. Stwierdzono pasowy układ źródeł i wysięków i ustalono różnice w wielkości i rodzaju mineralizacji wad oraz ich cech fizycznych. Zwrócono np. uwagę na nadzwyczaj niski odczyn (pH od 4,4 do 6,0) pewnej grupy źródeł, który wyjaśniono obecnością kwasów humusowych. Zarysowano model krążenia wód podziemnych badanego obszaru na podstawie budowy geologicznej oraz cech fizykochemicznych wód.

 

WATER SPRINGS AS A GROUND OF HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE

EASTERN  PART OF THE KLONOWSKIE RANGE (GÓRY ŚWIĘTOKRZYSKIE MTS)

 

Hydrogeologic regime of the eastern part of the Klonowskie Range in the north part of the Świętokrzyskie Mts is presented in this paper (Fig. 1). The study is based on the interpretation of the geological structure and results of investigations on water springs (i.e. their temperature, electric conduction, reaction, ion composition and capacity). The research covered two selected mountains Miejska Mt. and Psarska Mt. (ca 420 m a.s.l.) which are built of Upper Silurian rocks (shales, sandstones, graywackes). Upper Siegenian and Lower Emsian deposits (quartzitic sandstones, siltstones, claystones). Lower Ęifelian rocks (marls. silstones and shales) as well as Upper Eifelian and Lower Givetian dolomites (Fig. 2). The Quaternary cover (up to 26 m thick) is composed of the following deposits (from the top): loess, silty sands, two till horizons separated by sands, and in the upper part of slopes also of residual clay. The hydrographic patter on the northern slopes of the mountains is completely different than on the southern ones (Fig. 3)

On the northern slopes both springs and seepages are arranged in belts (Fig. 3, 4). and three zones have been distinguished there according to the altitude of spring and physico-chemical properties or water.

No relation of the water temperature to the position of springs has been found (Fig. 5) although both the reaction (Fig. 6) and total mineralization of water (Fig. 7) depend on the altitude. Waters of the 1st

(highest) zone differ most distinctly from the remaining ones (Fig. 8). Their acid reaction (pH 4,4-6,0) is caused most probably by humic acides as the springs are situated in the woods. Their total mineralization amounts 150-200 mg/dm3. The IInd and IIrd zones comprise neutral or slightly alkaline waters (pH 6.7-8.1) however mineralization in the IIrd zone (450- 550 mg/dm3) is higher than in the IInd one (310- 550 mg/dm3). No relation or the Na- or K+ ions content to the place or outflow has been found (Fig. 9). Groundwaters have similar chemical composition in all three zones (Fig. 10, 11) and the more dirferences reveal the same arrangement as described above i.e. in the 1st zone there are waters or HCO-Ca2+ - Mg2- and HCO3–Mg2- - Ca2- type while in the IInd and IIrd zones they are of different (type HCO-3 Ca2-). Ion content intervals and their mean values are shown in Tab. 1. Hydrogeological and geological data allowed the author to present a model of groundwater circulation (Fig.12). Inter sticial water was found within the Quaternary cover as well as fissure waters ware encontered in the basement rocks. Both deep and shallow water circulations have been proced in the northern slopes while in the southern ones only shallow circulation was observed. Generally southern slopes contain less water because of the northern dip of layers, lithology of basement rocks and Quaternary cover deposits as well as lower rainfall and short-lasting snow cover.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.7306/gq.v32i2.8534