Polska kartografia wgłębna i drogi jej rozwoju

Zofia Leszkiewicz-Biedowa, Edward Rühle




Recently, the amount of materials illustrating the structure of the earth's crust has considerably increased. Part of these materials deals with various elements of surface structure. Here belong mainly geological surveys and geologic and geotechnic maps and others. Greater part, however, can be referred to the deep structure of the earth's crust. So an ample material is an effect of application of geophysical methods in the researches, and of numerous drillings. As an example may serve here the geological research works made in Poland, where the amount of geophysical measurements increased in the last 15 years almost eightfold, drillings increasing fourfold. Ample materials obtained by these methods and observations concerning the earth's structure at various depths require various analyses and interpretation of facts. Spatial, graphical comparison of results, i.e. cartographical elaborations of various types on various scales, is one of the useful methods of work here. Long since we observe remarkable development of cartography that illustrates various elements and problems of deep-lying strata in the earth's crust. Thousands of various geologic maps have been issued in numerous countries. In Poland, cartographical works resulted in over 600 sheets of published maps, illustrating the deep geological structure of the country. However, so far no synthesis has been elaborated as concerns the achievements in this domain in Poland. In connection with the increasing significance of such elaborations, it seems to be purposeful to present a review of the previous Polish publications concerning this problems, and then, with reference to the classic, methodical elaborations of other countries, to discuss critically the problem of cartography, and to define the ways of its further development, especially as concerns the cartography that is rarely termed deep structure cartography. This notion was introduced by K. Guzik (1968) to make a difference between the classic geological cartography that deals mainly with the surface formations, and the cartography here considered. In the Anglo-American cartographical literature, elaborations of this kind are named “subsurface mapping” (Bishop M. S., 1960), in some cases also “solid maps”. In the Soviet Union these works are called “underground mapping” (= podziemnoye kartirovanye - Brod I. O., Mechtiyew Sz. F., 1952). The deep structure cartography is represented by the following types of maps: 1 - stratigraphic maps, 2 - morphologic maps, 3 - palaeogeomorphologic maps, 4 - thickness maps, 5 - lithofacial maps, 6 - structural maps, 7 tectonic maps, 8 - palaeogeographic maps, 9 - geophysica1 maps, and 10 geochemical maps.

Startigraphic maps were published already in 1883, however, on a larger scale they were issued only after 1946. In the last period of twenty years was elaborated “General Geologic Map of Poland - without Quaternary Formartions” on a scale 1 : 300 000, and numerous maps of “Geological Atlas of Poland” on a scale 1 : 1 000 000. A renewed edition of such an elaboration is the main task of the Geological Institute now.

Morphologic maps are of great use in the Polish geological cartography at present. Recently, interesting publications have been issued, among which the maps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, those of the Polish Lowland area and of the vicinity of Tarnobrzeg should be mentioned first of all. Palaeogeomorphologic maps are used in analyses and interpretations of main morphological elements, principally as concerns Tertiary and Pleistocene (S. Buksińsiki 1962, Z. Michalska 1961).

Thickness maps are of considerable importance both for theoretical solutions and for applied geology. Among numerous maps of this kind, the following are most interesting: ”Map of overburden thickness in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin”, and “Atlas of the Upper Silesian Region – Upper Cariboniferous formations - Maps of thickness and of contents of coarse-clastic and phytogenic material”.

Lithofacial maps are plotted in Poland for various geological problems. Considerable amount of such maps can be found in the “Geological Atlas et Poland - Stratigraphical and Facial Problems” 1 : 3 000 000. From the scientific and methodical point of view, the atlas represents an original elaborations, and has highly been esteemed in the country, and abroad.

Structural maps have for long time been elaborated in Poland. Already in 1934 the first sheet Grodziec was published under the title “Detailed Map of the Polish Coal Basin”, elaborated by S. Doktorowicz-Hrebnicki. In the last 20 years numerous structural maps on mean scales were issued for the individual areas of the Polish Coal basins.

Tectonic maps make a separate extensive domain. The first tectonical elaborations concerning the entire area of Poland was presented by J. Nowak (1927). Recently, to fulfil the task of Poland in the international co-operation. “Tectonic Map of Poland” has been published as one insert No 8 in the Geological Atlas of Poland, 1 : 1 000 000, elaborated by S. Sokołowski and J. Znosko in 1958. This map has been used to plot the “Tectonic Map of Europe” on a scale 1 : 5 000 000 prepared for the Cartographical Commission of the International Geological Congress,

Palaeogeographic maps are broadly used both in theoretical considerations and in search for, or reconnaissance, of various types of mineral deposits, first of all for oil and gas, hard coal, and bauxite deposits, as well as for clastic deposits of noble metals and others. Among the maps of this type the following should be mentioned above all: palinspatic, palaeogeologic and palaeotectonic maps. To the most interesting position of Polish cartography in this domain belongs 13th fascicle of the Geologic Atlas of Poland – Stratigraphic and facial problems, issued in 1962. On several palinspatic maps the occurrence of Cretaceous and older Tertiary formations found in the Polish External Carpathians was presented, and supposed distribution of continents and seas at the time of Alpine orogeny was reconstructed.

Geophysical maps were discussed more in detail in the paper by A. Dąbrowski (1960). As it results from this publication, syntheltic gravimetrical (1955) and magnetical (1956) maps of Poland were issued on a scale 1 ·: 1 000 000, as two inserts in the Geological Atlas of Poland.

Geochemical maps have so tar scarcely been represented in Poland. Here can be mentioned small-scale maps of hydrocarbon occurrence in Poland, as well as maps of oil and gas perspectives of the individual stratigraphical units of the Polish Lowland area. However, due to the increasing progress in geochemistry, the development of this type of cartography should take place in the next future. The present article concerning the Polish deep structure cartography and the ways of its development is the first general discussion of this important problem that, in the world's literature, is represented by numerous publications. It should be stressed that in Poland deep structure cartography has developed for a long time, and certain elaborations may from both scientific and methodical points of view be an example on international scale.

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